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AGM-84 Harpoon Missile

     The Harpoon is the only dedicated anti-ship missile in service with U.S. armed forces. It has been developed into several advanced versions, including the SLAM (Stand-off Land Attack Missile) derivatives for high-precision attacks on land targets. The Harpoon and SLAM will remain in service with the U.S. Navy for the foreseeable future.   Current U.S. platforms for the AGM-84 are the Navy's F/A-18, P-3C and S-3B and also a few B-52Hs of the USAF. The AGM-84E/H/K SLAM is currently used by the F/A-18 only.
       The name Harpoon was assigned to the project (i.e. a harpoon to kill "whales", a naval slang term for submarines). After the sinking of the Isreali destroyer Eilat in 1967 by Soviet-built anti-ship missiles, the U.S. Navy saw the need to develop a dedicated anti-shipping missile, and therefore Harpoon's primary mission became surface ship attack. The development project was formally begun in 1968, and the missile designator ZAGM-84A was allocated in 1970 after the Navy had issued a formal RFP (Request For Proposals). In June 1971, McDonnell-Douglas was awarded the prime contract for Harpoon, and the first test missile flew in October 1972. By that time it had already been decided to develop air-launched, ship-launched and submarine-launched Harpoon variants, designated AGM-84A, RGM-84A and UGM-84A, respectively. Because the range requirement was increased to 90 km (50 nm), turbojet propulsion was selected by McDonnell-Douglas. Production of the Harpoon began in 1975, and the first version to enter service was the shipborne RGM-84A in 1977, followed by the AGM-84A on P-3 aircraft in 1979. The UGM-84A became operational on attack submarines in 1981. There are also unarmed training versions of the AGM/RGM/UGM-84A, designated ATM-84A, RTM-84A and UTM-84A.
     The RGM-84A is usually fired from MK 140 (light weight) or MK 141 (shock-hardened) canister launchers, which hold four missiles, but older MK 112 (ASROC) or MK 26 (Standard) launchers can also be used. The RGM-84A has folding wings and fins which flip out immediately after exit from the launcher. For target acquisition and tracking, Harpoon-equipped surface ships use the AN/SWG-1 Harpoon Fire Control System. For launch from submarines, the UGM-84A is enclosed in a capsule, which glides to the surface after launch from the torpedo tube. When the capsule breaks the surface, the front and end caps are ejected and the missile fired. The digital MK 117 Fire Control System has full support for Harpoon integrated.
     More than 7000 Harpoon anti-ship missiles (including production for foreign countries) and 1000 SLAM variants have been built so far. Production of the anti-ship missiles continues for non-US customers, while production for the U.S. Navy will continue with the AGM-84K SLAM-ER ATA.
Length 3.85 m (12 ft 7.5 in) 4.63 m (15 ft 2.2 in) 4.50 m (14 ft 9 in) 4.44 m (14 ft 6.9 in) 4.37 m (14 ft 4 in)
Wingspan 91.4 cm (36 in) 2.43 m (96 in)
Diameter 34.3 cm (13.5 in)
Weight 540 kg (1200 lb) 690 kg (1520 lb) 627 kg (1385 lb) 635 kg (1400 lb) 725 kg (1600 lb)
Speed Mach 0.85
Range 220 km (120 nm) 140 km (75 nm) 93 km (50 nm) 315 km (170 nm) 280 km (150 nm)
Propulsion Sustainer: Teledyne/CAE J402-CA-400 turbojet; 3.0 kN (680 lb)
Booster (RGM/UGM-84 only): A/B44G-2 or -3 solid-fueled rocket; 53 kN (12000 lb) for 2.9 sec
Warhead 221 kg (488 lb) WDU-18/B
penetrating blast-fragmentation
360 kg (800 lb) WDU-40/B penetrating BF